大卫·休谟

苏格兰哲学家

大衛·休谟David Hume,1711年5月7日-1776年8月25日[1])是英國哲學家、經濟學家、和歷史學家。

休谟

語錄编辑

  • 天堂與地獄把人分為兩種,好人和壞人。但是人性中最偉大的部分卻是在惡與美之間浮動。
    • Essay on the Immortality of the Soul
  • 「很幸運的,雖然理性並無法驅除我腦中哲學的憂鬱和精神錯亂,大自然本身達成了這個目標。透過放鬆這個腦袋或透過一些娛樂消遣,使我獲得愉悅的感官刺激,消除了所有這些惱中的怪念頭。我會吃吃東西、或是下下棋、與人聊天、與我的朋友度過美好時光;而在經過三四個小時的娛樂後,我才會回到那些哲學思考中,發現我的腦子竟是如此的冷酷、如此節制而可笑,讓我體悟到我不應該再從事這種活動了。」 存档副本. [2007-06-09]. (原始内容存档于2006-08-24). 
  • 最初休謨打算從事法律職業,但不久後他發現自己有了「一種對於學習哲學和知識以外所有事物的極度厭煩感,當我的家人想像我正在閱讀屋埃特和維尼阿斯(兩位當時著名的法學家)時,我實際上卻是在閱讀西塞羅維吉爾的著作。」休謨對於大學裡的教授都不抱好感,他曾在1735年告訴一名朋友說:「你根本不能從教授身上學到任何東西,那些東西在書裡都有了。」[2]
  • 奴隸制對慣於自由的人而言是如此可怕,以至於必須將奴隸制逐步偽裝才能被接受。但是,如果曾經失去新聞自由,就必然立即失去新聞自由。目前,反對對政府的反叛的一般法律已經可以製定。沒有什麼可以加以進一步的約束,而是要么在新聞界鼓掌,要么向法院賦予很大的酌處權,以懲罰使他們不愉快的一切。但是這些讓步將是對自由的赤裸裸的侵犯,以至於它們可能是專制政府的最後努力。我們可以得出結論,當這些嘗試取得成功時,英國的自由就永遠消失了。
原文:Slavery has so frightful an aspect to men accustomed to freedom, that it must steal upon them by degrees, and must disguise itself in a thousand shapes, in order to be received. But, if the liberty of the press ever be lost, it must be lost at once. The general laws against sedition and libelling are at present as strong as they possibly can be made. Nothing can impose a farther restraint, but either the clapping an Imprimatur upon the press, or the giving to the court very large discretionary powers to punish whatever displeases them. But these concessions would be such a bare-faced violation of liberty, that they will probably be the last efforts of a despotic government. We may conclude, that the liberty of Britain is gone for ever when these attempts shall succeed.
  • 當時從未有一個將權力交給某些法官的政府出現在世界上……但是議會公正地認為,國王太過显著,無法以自由裁量權來信任他,他可能會輕易地將其轉向破壞自由。
原文:No government, at that time, appeared in the world… But the parliament justly thought, that the King was too eminent a magistrate to be trusted with discretionary power, which he might so easily turn to the destruction of liberty.
  • 對羅馬的效忠在英格蘭不斷增加。受到征服者的情緒及曾由埃德雷德和艾德加引入的修道院的青睞,它很快達到了在法國和意大利曾有過的高度。之後它走得更遠。其被遙遠的情勢所青睞,起初阻礙了其進展。
原文:The devoted attachment to Rome continually encreased in England; and being favoured by the sentiments of the conquerors, as well as by the monastic establishments formerly introduced by Edred and by Edgar, it soon reached the same height, at which it had, during some time, stood in France and Italy. It afterwards went much farther; being favoured by that very remote situation, which had at first obstructed its progress;
  • 對於那些以哲學眼光看待人類事務的人來說,沒有什麼比讓許多人受少數人統治的容易程度更令人驚訝的了。隱含的屈從,使人們將自己的感情和激情投向統治者。
原文:Nothing appears more surprising to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few; and the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of their rulers.
  • 由於一致的情緒使它變得更加奇妙,因此任何矛盾都使它感到震驚和不安。因此,大多數人在爭執中發現了這種渴望。因此,即使是在最投機和冷漠的意見中,他們也很反對。
原文:And as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of sentiments, so is it shocked and disturbed by any contrariety. Hence the eagerness, which most people discover in a dispute; and hence their impatience of opposition, even in the most speculative and indifferent opinions.
  • 一般來說,宗教錯誤是危險的;那些在哲學上只是荒謬的。
原文:Generally speaking, the errors in religion are dangerous; those in philosophy only ridiculous.
  • 沒有什麼比想像力的飛行更危險的推理了,在哲學家中發生更多錯誤的機會也沒有。在這方面,有才華的人可以與那些天使一樣,用經文作翼遮住眼睛。在許多情況下已經出現了這種情況,因此我們可以免除進一步擴大它的麻煩。
原文:Nothing is more dangerous to reason than the flights of the imagination, and nothing has been the occasion of more mistakes among philosophers. Men of bright fancies may in this respect be compar'd to those angels, whom the scripture represents as covering their eyes with their wings. This has already appear'd in so many instances, that we may spare ourselves the trouble of enlarging upon it any farther.
  • 天鵝,火雞或孔雀的獨特步態和顯示出的自娛時的高尚理想;及他對所有他者的蔑視。這是更值得注意的,在最後兩種動物中,高傲總是伴隨著美,且僅在雄性中才發現。夜鶯在歌唱中的虛榮心和模仿已被普遍提及……所有這些都是顯而易見的證據,驕傲和謙卑不僅是人類的激情,而且還擴展到整個動物創造。
原文:The very port and gait of a swan, or turkey, or peacock show the high idea he has entertain'd of himself; and his contempt of all others. This is the more remarkable, that in the two last species of animals, the pride always attends the beauty, and is discover'd in the male only. The vanity and emulation of nightingales in singing have been commonly remark'd […] All these are evident proofs, that pride and humility are not merely human passions, but extend themselves over the whole animal creation.

参考来源编辑

  1. 4月26日是休謨依據儒略曆的生日,他在格里曆的生日是5月7日
  2. Hume, D. My Own Life Nat. Lib. Scot., mss 23159, p23.

外部链接编辑

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